In the 2016 presidential election the Democrats never used the word republic to describe the political system and Republicans rarely used it, both preferring to use the word democracy. Most people ignorantly refer to the political system as a democracy and have to be reminded that this word is not in the Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights or any other document given by the Founding Fathers. The Pledge of Allegiance to the flag identifies the nation’s form of government as a republic.
Benjamin Franklin wrote in 1759, “Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. Liberty is a well-armed lamb contesting the vote.” A republic has seven major components.
First, the importance of majority rule is recognized but limited. Is the majority always right? No. Mother made this point when her teenager asked to smoke marijuana on the basis that everyone was doing it and said, “If everyone jumped off a bridge would you?”
Second, minority rights, registering less than 50 percent, are protected from the majority. In Franklin’s analogy, the lamb had the right to exist even if the majority, the wolves, said differently. A lynch mob is a democracy; everyone votes but the one being hanged. Even if caught in the act of a crime, the defendant is entitled to the protection of law, a judge, jury, witnesses for his defense and a lawyer to argue his innocence; all necessary but expensive. Later, if he is found guilty, he can be hanged. Because democracy only considers majority rule, it is much less expensive. A rope tossed over a tree limb will do.
Third, a republic is based upon natural inalienable rights first acknowledged in the Declaration of Independence. This document asserted to the world that the nation acknowledged that humans have rights from a source higher than mere man. A reference to deity is mentioned five times. If there is no God, there can be no inalienable rights coming from him, and we are left with man as God. What man is good enough?
Fourth, a republic emphasizes individual differences rather than absolute equality, as does democracy. We are not equal, even from the womb, and we never will be, if equality means sameness. One baby with a cleft palate needs three operations to live well and look normal. Some children come out of the womb with access to a laptop, others with a basketball or golf clubs. One of my first great insights in life was that everyone was better at everything than I was. The second great insight I made was that life is not fair and never will be. Free men are not equal, and equal men are not free. Genetics makes one fat, another bald and gives yet another terminal cancer in his youth.
Even economically, it is not possible to be equal. Should I give each of my students a million dollars in exchange for everything they now own, shave their heads and give them identical uniforms, that is should I approximate sameness as much as possible, before requiring that they return in five years with some ledger of net worth. Would they be the same in what was left of the million? No. Why does the government try so hard to do that which is impossible? A republic looks upon people’s differences as assets – decidedly not the base of democracy.
Fifth, limited government is also a major aspect of a republic. Centralized government is good, so long as the government remembers that when it oversteps its bounds it becomes the greatest obstacle to liberty because it pulls decision-making power away from the individual. Excessive government, as the cause of the American Revolution, is never forgotten. The Constitution as created to handcuff the government and prevent it from dominating the citizen’s lives, thus the powers of the federal government were listed in Article I, Section 8. The Founders understood that the more government at the top, the less at the bottom, and that was the essence of freedom.
Sixth, a republic has frequent elections with options. Frequent elections happen in some socialist countries, so this action alone does not ensure liberty. In fact, it may be somewhat deceiving as it fosters the notion that we choose and thus deserve the elected officers. It also assumes that the people are correctly informed, which assumes a free press and equal access to all information. The part of the phrase “with options” is the part that ensures liberty. Elections under socialism provide choices but offer no options, as all the participants are from the same party.
Seventh, a healthy fear of the emotions of the masses and of its potential to destabilize natural law upon which a republic’s freedom is based; as for example, the notion that someone else’s wealth belonged to the masses destroyed freedom in Athens and Rome. The U.S. needs a caring, sensitive, compassionate government, but emotion must not be allowed to overwhelm reason and time-tested natural law constants. Aristotle taught that the poor will always envy the rich, and that the rich will always have contempt for the poor. A republic will not allow the poor to destroy the rich in their quest for the wealth of the rich, but does incentivize the poor to increase their wealth and become the middle class, which in time becomes the largest body.
As explained, democracy does not protect liberty. In Benjamin Franklin’s analogy, it would have allowed the wolves to have eaten the lamb simply because the lamb had been outvoted. No wonder the Founding Father rejected democracy in favor of a republic.
Dr. Harold Pease is a syndicated columnist and an expert on the United States Constitution. He has dedicated his career to studying the writings of the Founding Fathers and applying that knowledge to current events. He has taught history and political science from this perspective for over 30 years at Taft College. To read more of his weekly articles, visit www.LibertyUnderFire.org.